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Socially Mediated Publicness in Networked Society for Indonesian Muslim Women

Abstract: This paper addresses discursive processes that generated ‘jilboobs’ term. It tries to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness and its affordances by investigating the process of image making of Indonesian Muslim women. Using Foucauldian discourse analysis approach, the result shows three characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness: (1) religiosity has a central role in the shift and contestation of private versus public sphere, (2) the visual turn of the social media has given specifi c augmentation for networked public affordances, and (3) feminine pious bodies are often marked by their concurrent presence and absence.

Keywords: jilboobs, Muslim women, networked publics, socially mediated publicness, veil

Scholars have argued that in the Information Age, we are witnessing the birth of network society (Castells, 2010), which is powered by digital technologies and restructures traditional notion of social networks. More recently, in today’s network society, the lives of people who are constantly connected to the internet are informed by or perhaps entangled in social media. Interactions created by the prevalence of social media have blurred the boundaries of our offl ine and online lives, creating what Lim (2015) calls a “cyberurban space”, and at the same time blurred the boundaries of what is considered public and private, generating the notion of “socially mediated publicness” (Baym & Boyd, 2012). In a cyberurban space, our physical and online lives are confl ated. Online and offl ine social practices inform and interact with one another that there is no possibility to distinguish and discriminate their social, cultural, and political impacts in our daily lives. None is better or more infl uential than the other, and the combination saturates the potential for alternative spaces and consequently contestation of power (Lim, 2015). In addition, our interactions in social media have transcended the classic division of public versus private sphere. Everyone using social media is concurrently a potential speaker and a potential audience, and their relationship with what is public is shifting and becoming more complex, creating what Baym and Boyd (2012) called a ‘socially mediated publicness’. It renders the users’ everyday experience visible to an imagined audience (Baym & Boyd, 2012). The social media users in networked publics, in this sense, are engaged in networked technologies that the social media depend on. The fl ow of communication in the networked publics, although it replicates and resembles traditional public sphere, is confi gured by the specifi c architecture that is based on bits, the smallest unit of computer memory size. The bits, therefore, inform the type of affordances in networked publics: persistence, replicability, scalability, searchability, and shareability (Boyd, 2010, p. 46; Papacharissi & Gibson, 2011, p. 76). Persistence refers to the act of recording and archiving, meaning online discussions available any time as documented information. Replicability refers to ease, to reproduce, and to duplicate. Scalability refers to the constant potential of (massive) audience that networked publics allow the users to have, giving way to any topic to become ‘viral’, although it does not warrant popularity.

Searchability refers to the accessibility of information for all users (Boyd, 2010, p. 46). Shareability is the social feature the networked technology facilitates. Following the nature of bits, it allows the ease of sharing any information, from personal to restricted data (Papacharissi & Gibson, 2011, p. 76). They characterize various online activities and its problems. The potential for free speech, social movements, and creative engagement appears at the same time with the potential for social inequality. The problems that networked publics discuss and trigger mimic the problems in conventional social structure (Boyd, 2010; Lim, 2015). The affordances that networked structures have and the socially mediated publicness that the structures create are often discussed within the limits of secular, rational public/private sphere debate. Boyd, who theorized the networked public affordances, studied Twitter users’ imagined audience in the context of networked publics (Marwick & Boyd, 2011). She found specifi c management of audience that the Twitter users had to do, in order to appropriate their self-expression in social media. Nevertheless, she did not problematize religious values that often collapse the public/private sphere binary altogether in certain societies, thus making affordances of networked publics, in this context, more complicated. As Boyd herself (Baym & Boyd, 2012) has argued, analysis on networked publics should not be detached from the people and their social, cultural, and political contexts. In a society where religious values hold social signifi cance, how do we understand the impact of socially mediated publicness? How can we add to our understanding of networked publics’ affordances to explain complications that may arise when socially mediated publicness is present in a religious society? Following Boyd’s concept of socially mediated publicness, it is instructive that we take the concept to a different setting. With the rise of the internet, Muslims have managed to create their own space. Internet savvy Muslims regulate, negotiate, and resist various forms of networks and practices that appeared online (Bunt, 2009). Furthermore, as today’s popular social network sites such as Instagram, Snapchat, Facebook, and Twitter are increasingly visual based (Rettberg, 2014), the modes in which Muslim societies express themselves become more complicated. This paper seeks to add to Boyd’s theoretical intervention by analyzing networked publics in Muslim context, particularly in relation to veiled Muslim women. In regard to her visual presence, Muslim women are constantly negotiating her appearance and ethical consideration related to her veil. For the Muslimahs, beauty and religious conviction work together for a presentation that is both aesthetic and ethical (Bucar, 2016, p. 84). Nevertheless, this visibility when taken online has to be constantly negotiated as different societies have different experience and reactions (Robinson, 2014). In Indonesia, where fashion veiling is popular, Muslim women’s self presentation are often too easily discerned as either perpetuating consumerism or too focused on embellishment that shifts the attention from religious devotion (Jones, 2010).For a veiled Muslim woman who participated on social media, her religious expression can no longer relates to just her inner belief. She is always present with her religious conviction, symbolized by the veil. Thus, when social media becomes more and more visual based, her appearance becomes key when she is present in pictures. Her veil becomes an inadvertent marker for the way she communicates her thoughts online. When she takes a picture of herself, or known today as ‘selfi e’, it ineluctably brings the veil forward. When she poses in front of her favourite cafe with friends and upload it on Facebook or Instagram, her veil is there with her to announce her religiosity. Thus, the online presence of the Muslim women in a growingly visualbased socially mediated publicness is tangled with the digital image. Her public presence is growingly dictated with the images she uploads, making the vernacular act of uploading selfi es and daily pictures on social media a public presence that can potentially be a public concern, especially in a Muslim majority country. If socially mediated publicness blurs the boundary between public and private, the lives of Muslims in Muslim countries or Islamic states have very different conception of what is private and public from the very beginning. In Saudi Arabia, for instance, Talal Asad (1993) observes how its culture of public criticism is based on moral concerns, in which Muslims believe that reminding other Muslims is a moral obligation, to help better the ummah. This includes fellow Muslims reminding each other about their deeds in daily lives and -on a more political level- the ulamā giving approving or dissenting opinion to the state in regards to various forms of change. In a Muslim society, the Muslim public believes that to better the moral of the people around them is an obligation. Therefore, this paper fi nds it critical to examine Boyd’s claim on networked publics affordances, which deal with the way we view the blurred lines between public and private spheres, in a Muslim context. I believe an analysis of the intersection between networked publics affordances, image-driven socially mediated publicness, veiled Muslim women, and the issue of privacy and publicness is fundamental to further our understanding on the nexus of power relations that forms our cyberurban lives and to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness into a specifi c sociocultural context and take it beyond rational, secular public/private sphere debate.

This paper takes a specifi c case study of ‘jilboobs’ from Indonesia, a Muslim majority country with 73 million internet users. Jilboobs became a trending topic -to use Twitter lingo- in mid 2014. Pictures of Muslim women wearing veils and revealing the shape of their breasts and body shapes were circulated in different social media sites and discussed in major online news websites and popular online forum. As veiling is an option for Indonesian Muslim women (except for those who live in Aceh province), actions and reactions online revealed complex relationship that the society has with the veil and feminine bodies. This phenomenon is a relevant case study to ground the notion of socially mediated publicness as it can help revealing specifi c understanding in Indonesia about the location of Muslim feminine bodies and the (im)possibility of separation between public and private sphere separation, a concern that Boyd underlines. Social concerns about Muslim women’s bodies displayed and circulated in social media in Indonesia, as this paper will show, could not be understood within simplifi ed boundary of public and private spheres and its growingly blurred lines. Thus, using the case of jilboobs in Indonesia, this paper rethinks the notion of socially mediated publicness (Baym & Boyd, 2012; Marwick & Boyd, 2011) in a society that emphasize religiosity by investigating the process of image making that the women marked as jilboobs went through.

METHODS

This study offers a qualitative insight using cultural studies approach, as it concerns the power relations involved in the discursive processes that generated the term jilboobs. To study the discursive process that generated the term jilboobs, Foucauldian discourse analysis became the preferred approach. Discourse, according to Foucault, consists of statements and their regulated practices (Foucault, 1972), and it dictates how we talk about a particular topic or even the way we live (Mills, 2003). A Foucauldian discourse analysis traces how a discourse is formed and later transformed to reveal subject formation and power relation it entails. It requires determining a corpus of statements that can reveal conditions of possibility and its temporal variability and collecting the texts. It is later followed by problematizing the corpus to be able to take a critical position and to trace the formation of the discursive object. This approach is particularly interested in how the corpus reveals subject positions (moral location within social interaction) and subjectifi cation (ethics of self-formation) (Arribas-Ayllon & Walkerdine, 2008, p. 99). In this paper, I share observation on how jilboobs became a trending topic on Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram in early 2014 and spiraled into a social issue by the mid-end of the year. I followed the popularity of Jilboobs Community’s Facebook page and public debates that ensued involving Majelis Ulama Indonesia’s (MUI) statement and online as well as print media’s exposure. As a corpus of statements, the study used Twitter advanced search feature to follow previous tweets with the hashtag (#) jilboobs to be able to trace back the discussion. It revealed the earliest mention of the word jilboobs in 2012 until the end of 2014. I gathered the tweets and did close reading of the texts. Furthermore, I gathered images uploaded on Instagram with the same hashtag using the RSS feature provided by http://websta.me. However, I could not do a through image search on Instagram to backtrack the hashtag due to Instagram new API restrictions, so it relied on images on HTML fi les I downloaded using the RSS feature in Devonthink Pro Offi ce software from January 2015-August 2015. I also took notes on the names of Instagram accounts mentioning the word ‘jilboobs’ specifi cally. Online news on jilboobs from 2014 was also gathered to help map the discussion. All the data gathered were then used to understand the temporal developments of the phenomenon as well as its discursive process. One particular article from Julia Suryakusuma (2014) published on English language newspaper in Indonesia, The Jakarta Post, was analyzed in detail, as this paper will show later, because it represents one of the most important commentary on the jilboobs phenomenon at that time.

DISCUSSION

To return back to Boyd’s conception of soci ally mediated publicness and its affordances, we have seen how the characteristics of the internet’s architecture helped to ‘create’ the jilboobs phenomenon. Digital images such as selfi e that were stored on social media platforms or websites (following the concept of persistence) could easily be ‘copied’ and (mis-)used for other purposes (replicability). The potential for massive audience (scalability) was actually realized as veiling is an important element for Muslim women’s ethical cultivation, and concerns were building up as anyone can look the pictures up on search engines or websites (searchability), and then share them on different platforms (shareability). Although the fl ow of communication followed specifi c architecture of online communication, the issues that the jilboobs phenomenon revealed were marked specifi cally by the importance of religious values in Indonesian Muslim society, and this transcended the issue of public versus private sphere. Blogs, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram accounts that distributed the pictures of the women claimed as ‘jilboobers’ were seen as a moral reminder for the Muslim society in Indonesia to have better da’wa strategies, so that Muslim women could learn how to don the veil properly, in accordance with the shari’a. A claim that the women’s privacy were invaded because their pictures were misused would not work in this case, as no concern on privacy was addressed. Another important point was how none of the posts or tweets came from the women reputed to be jilboobers. Flows of comments and reactions were running commentary and dissent for an imagined group of Muslim women by fellow Muslims who were concerned about the seemingly declining morale of the women as represented by the images. Arguably, therefore, the #jilboobs phenomenon has revealed three main characteristics of Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness. One, religiosity plays an important role in the shift and contestation of the already blurred division of private versus public sphere. The pool of images marked as jilboobs represented a form of visibility that was utilized for control and dominance over Muslim women’s relationship with their bodies and pious dispositions. It represents religious patriarchal values that have reasoning based on virtue and piety found on Islamic text interpretations. Although MUI was the only major institution that would publicly assert this position, I believe Suryakusuma’s stance -as shown in the analysis above- refl ects a deeper problematic and complex relationship that Indonesian networked publics have with Islam, and in effect with the Muslim women today. From there, we see how analysis on networked society and socially mediated publicness cannot ignore religious concerns and assume universal separation of what is religious and rational in various societies. Two, the visual turn of the social media has given specifi c augmentation for networked public affordances. A phenomenon like #jilboobs could only happen, I contend, when the visual based social network sites started to gain popularity. Muslim women’s identity is marked -as they wear veil- through their visibility. As appearance is an important part in representing Muslimness (or even Muslimwomanness), there is always a “war of presence” (Azoulay, 2008; Khatib, 2012) to justify particular interpretations of veiling through digital images. In the past, Muslim women wearing tight clothing would be called ‘jilbab gaul’ or ‘jilbab funky’, and they were usually discussed in print media or scholarly discourse. However, contemporary internet affordances have made traditional media ethics or analytical approaches are unnecessary or irrelevant. Naming or marking particular feminine bodies can now be supplemented with a combination of naming-shamingvisualizing altogether marking the ‘abnormal’ Muslim women bodies. Lastly, feminine pious bodies in a socially mediated publicness are often marked by their concurrent presence and absence. The subjects (Muslim women marked as jilboobs) are present and absent at the same time. Her images can be taken and copied/reproduced by other users, following the affordances of networked publics such as replicability and shareability, acknowledging her as a user and content producer. However, when her picture was reused, repurposed, and marked as jilboobs her ‘self’ became absent. Her virtual profi le and agency went missing, and her specifi c context for taking and posting the photo became lost. She became a mere image, a part of a hashtag that emphasizes anonymity while naming and shaming the feminine bodies.

CONCLUSION

Because this study is concerned with discursive process that generated the term jilboobs, I am aware that I have set aside feminist concerns of freedom, concern, body image, and privacy. Nevertheless, statements and regulations that generated the jilboobs phenomenon, I would argue, revealed critical fi ndings on how the Indonesian Muslim society forms its present-day feminine subjects. Evaluation on how a Muslim society should better treat their women is not within the reach of this paper. In conclusion, the entanglement between religiosity, social media, and feminine pious bodies characterizes Indonesia’s socially mediated publicness. To limit issues related with the public/ private sphere only in rational and ‘secular’ settings would mean leaving out important debates and the changing boundaries of what is considered as public/private concerns that the Muslim societies have brought about. The fl uid and ever changing confl ation of online and offl ine lives in our contemporary lives has become more interesting with the concerns of the ummah (Bunt, 2003, 2009), and this will continue to challenge our assessment of the ‘cyber’ and its effect to our lives.

Sumber : www.e-jurnal.com

Annisa R. Beta

 
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Ditulis oleh pada Juli 12, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

Multicultural Benefits and Challenges for International Students during Period of Their Study: Case Study in Malaysia

Abstract

Current researches on internationalization claim “studying overseas” as a set of potential that assist the augmentation of “globalization”. This article presents the Multicultural Benefits and challenges for International Students during Period of their Study in university Putra Malaysia. Qualitative method and convenience sampling was applied. Semi-structured interview and in depth interviews were conducted on 20 postgraduate students from various fields of study. The result of study showed that the benefits and challenges faced by the international postgraduate students can classify into distinct categories. Studying overseas offers benefits and plus points in terms of Career perspective, cultural familiarity, self-development. The challenges included problems related to facilities, social environment, education system, financial problem and international office programs. The comments made by the students could be considered by the university authorities for improvement in quality of education for international students during their studies.

Keywords: International post-graduate students, challenges and benefits, qualitative method.

 

Introduction

As the world is becoming immensely internationalized, it is fundamental that the college and university students be provided with the fully global academic opportunities. Increasing number of universities accepting higher number of international students each year in Malaysian universities shows the importance of the internationalization education in Malaysia. According to the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia is currently ranked 11th in the world by UNESCO in terms of the number of international students studying in the country (Benjamin, 2010). Malaysia is not only accepting international students in undergraduate level, but also a large number of international students are being accepted in post graduate level. A research university and a well reputed one in Malaysia, recorded an increase in international graduate student recruitment with a total of 432 students in the second half of 2011/2012.Accordingly,it is considered as one of the  main choice for international students to pursue their studies in this country.

International students in this research are defined as individuals who temporarily reside in a country other than their country of citizenship in order to participate in international educational exchange as students (Paige, 1990). International students come from different countries with different backgrounds and experience. Undoubtedly “study abroad program” offers the greatest potential for pragmatic international education, which is pertinent to the student’s academic, cultural, personal, and career goals (Brux & Fry, 2010). Lots of plus points can be enumerated for “study abroad” as: student will be capable of acquiring the wider viewpoint regarding to the human circumstances in the world and students exhibit an expanded vision of the world and become more tolerant in their approach to issues (Carlson & Burn, 1989; Brux & Fry, 2010). Study abroad program helps facilitate academic programs, volunteer positions, conducting research, internships and exchange programs around the world (Chang, 2011). Moreover, researchers indicated that international awareness, language skills and intercultural competency should be improved by study abroad (Duhon, 2006; Lewin, 2009; Magnan & Back, 2007; Savicki, 2008; Williams, 2009).

According to Chang (2011) international Students believed that gaining international educational experiences was the opportunity to familiar with various cultures, obtain life experience and enrich their academic and research experience. Moreover, the results of  studies illustrated that, the challenges faced by international students have been categorized by following five categories: (1) general living adjustment, such as adjusting to food, finding affordable and adequate housing and transportation, dealing with financial constraints; (2) academic difficulties, such as lack of Method of Teaching Problems; (3) English-language proficiency; (4) socio-cultural difficulties, for example, experiencing culture shock, Recreational Problems (5); personal psychological adjustment, such as homesickness and depression experiences (Lin & Yi, 1997; Ying & Liese, 1994; Tseng and Newton, 2002; Norhasni Zainal, 2007; Al-Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Mustapha, 2010; Marginson et al. 2010 ;Alavi & Shafeq, 2011; Chang, 2011).

This literature review revealed that postgraduate international students face different problems and experiences. Thus, to attract international students, universities need to understand the benefits and difficulties and to provide the right kind of support. In an attempt to fill this research gap, the main objective of this study is to identify benefits and difficulties faced by the international post-graduate

students during their studies in University of Putra Malaysia. Although several researchers have studied to identify international post-graduate students benefits and challenges from the descriptive (mainly quantitatively), yet research needs to address these devices qualitatively. In contrast to previous studies, international postgraduate student’s challenges during the first year of study have not been researched qualitatively so far. The present study seeks to fill the research gap on to identify Multicultural benefits and challenges for international students during period of their Study in University of Putra Malaysia through addressing the following questions:

  1. What are the benefits of “study in multicultural university “for the postgraduate students during the period of study?
  2. What are the Challenges of “study in multicultural university “for the postgraduate students during the period of study?

 

Research methodology

The study was conducted at University Putra Malaysia (UPM). The participants were twenty international post -graduate students, who are doing their MS/PhD studies in biotechnology, TESL, educational administration, management, engineering, economic, food science and computer sciences and came from Iran, Yemen, Iraq, Nigeria and Sudan. Convenience sampling was applied to select the samples because the researcher had an easy access to them. Patton (2002) states that qualitative inquiry typically focuses on relatively small samples selected purposefully to permit inquiry into and understanding of a phenomenon in depth. The interviewees were contacted by email. Out of 25 students who were sent an email, twenty accepted to participate in the interview. Each interview took maximum thirty minutes. Having the participants’ permission, the interviews were digitally recorded. However one participant did not allow the researcher to record the interview. The main purpose of this study was to provide an indepth description and understanding of the human life experience (Lichtman, 2006). It was meant to collect direct speech of the people about their experience, opinions, feelings and knowledge (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Patton, 1991). Through the process a special kind of information stored is ‘in and on someone else’s mind’ could be collected. Therefore, the semi-structured, face-toface interview was applied to collect specific data (Merriam, 1998). Based on a review of the literature, a set of questions was developed in advance. Before the interviews were conducted, the interview questions were examined by two experts in the field of education and their comments on the each question were taken into account. Then, objective of the study were clarified to the informants and later transcription of the interviews sent to the informants. They confirmed what was transcribed as comments of their own to the interview questions. The reliability of the findings was also strengthened to the scope of study by similarity of responses to the pertinent literature.

The interviews were transcribed and analysed in relation to the purpose of the study. Dates were coded into categories. The process was carried out inductively that involves examining many small pieces of information and building connection between them. There were then developed based on the code categories.

 

Table1.  Challenges categories common code from international students

THEMES                                                                                                           CATEGORIES

Accommodation, transportation, food.                                                          Facilities.

Cultural, communication and English difficulties.                                    Social and                                                                                                                                  communication differences.

Academic system, lecturers and methodology, faculty

supervisor.                                                                                                    Education challenges.

Lack of entertaining activities                                                                    International office. program.

Costs of living and study.                                                                              Financial problems.

 

Table 2.  Benefits categories common code from international students

THEMES                                                                                                               CATEGORIES

International work culture                                                                          Career perspective.

Intercultural exchange, effective communication and

new friendship, and global perceptions.                                                    Cultural familiarity.

Autonomy and independence, selfawareness, academic skill,

financial management.                                                                                    Self-development.

Findings and discussion

Findings of this research are divided into three parts based on the two research questions. The first part deals with the benefits and the second belong to barriers.

The plus points of study abroad

The participants’ perceptions about the benefits of their study abroad are categorized into three main benefits.

Cultural familiarity

Based on the results obtained in this research, one of the benefits of being an international student was about cultural familiarities which were classified into three categories: intercultural exchange, effective communication and new friendship, and global perceptions. Stephanie McLeod & Wainwright (2009) indicated that hostess country have the ability to boost intercultural competence goals by developing intercultural. Moreover, Zhai and Scheer (2004) indicated that cultural diversity leads to higher global perceptions and have positive attitudes toward diversity of culture. International students’ have ability to communicate with other culture and understand the feelings of people who belong to another culture (Hammer, 1987; Hammer, Gudykunst, & Wiseman, 1978).Thus, UPM as an international university does provide international situation for cultural exchange. The interviewees’ comments are mentioned as follows:

One student stated that “as international student, we have an opportunity to learn to be more respectful of other cultures and political.”  Likewise, some students believed that students are likely to have increased respect for other cultures and appreciate the differences between cultures, and this is the best way to makes them better team worker and problem-solvers. One student believed that, the experience which we can obtain from studying abroad can be much more than the experience gained in our home country. The result is supported by the literature, in which cultural difference between host and home country can lead to significant intercultural experience in studying abroad (Paige et al. 2006; Hofstede et al. 2010). Also, majority of them stated that, during study abroad programs, students transform their experience into learning and share their knowledge without any prejudice. It is the best opportunity for interaction with different people and culture and sharing of their knowledge.

Regarding cultural familiarity, some students believed that they are not only learning about other cultures and find new friends with different culture, but the experience is also very rewarding. Also, one of them said that “after finish our study, we make contact with our international friends and this interaction could be rewarding”. The results of the interview also indicate that all of the students believed that study abroad give them an opportunity to know a great group of friends with different culture.

Self-development 

According to the results of the study conducted, another benefit of study abroad is self-development which is categorized into four dimensions: autonomy and independence, self-awareness, gain academic skill, financial managing. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that categories of benefits to international students are open perspectives and independence (Al-Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Lin & Yi, 1997; Yusoff & Chelliah, 2010; Mustapha, 2010; Alavi & Shafeq, 2011).

Among the benefits that all of the students in this study mentioned, opportunity to discover their ability and understanding their interest and habits was obvious. One participant believed that, “study on another country give me an opportunity to understand my adaptation ability to different situations”. Also, all students remarked that “independent nature is bringing out by being in overseas country”. Furthermore, all of participants stated that, “our confidence and independence was improved by studying and living in another country”. In this research international students believed that studying abroad leads those to new situations the whole time. They believed that, when we try to convey our needs and thoughts by new language and intercultural skills, it helps us to be more independent and gives us confidence during our study. Also, some participants believed that as result of being independents in our life, our decision-making and problem-solving skills are improved. The result is supported by the literature where, international experiences had an impact on student’s personal development and confidence growth. Therefore, international experiences are opportunity to explore best ways of for solving that challenges (Lee, 2004).

Career perspective

Career perspective was another benefit of studying overseas. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that, undertaking a course in overseas for professional advancement prepares students for work as academics in their own country (Margaret et al. 2006) and influences their career development (Norris & Gillespie, 2009).

The majority of the students in this study stated that studying abroad will improve their career prospects and attractiveness to future employers. Likewise, one study indicates that of all respondents have engaged in international work or volunteerism since studying abroad.

In this research it has also been found that the international students believed that studying abroad helps gain professional benefits and competitive edge in their career. Moreover, some students assert that, “get a job overseas and work for a multinational country was the benefits of study foreign country”. One participant believed that “Employers often seek employees with the ability to speak other languages or understand other cultures. Studying abroad is imperative for students who wish to enter international business, and employers look for the skills study abroad students have, such as communication, analytical abilities, teamwork and flexibility”. This was mentioned in the literature, Evans and Stevenson (2010) who said that according to international Australian PhD students the PhD degree will enhance their career prospects.

 

The Challenges of study abroad

The second research question focused on the challenges encountered by international postgraduate students which can be categorised into four.

Facilities

According to the results of the study conducted, the students have also faced facilities barriers which in turn are categorized into three main groups: habitation, transportation, campus restaurants. Lu (2001) stated that housing and food was the two problematic areas for international students when they arrive in the US. Regarding Accommodation facilities, some students believed that they are not only inappropriate, unsafe, poor, and inconvenient, but also very expensive. Also, UPM does not provide information about accommodation. The interviewees’ comments are mentioned as follows:

Some student stated that “UPM’s International Housing Complex not only the rent was very high, but also the facilities were so poor and there was not conveniently situated. Being located at the end of the academic area, it was very isolated and I did not feel really secure at night.” According to the results of the study, not enough information is given on accommodation. The majority of students mentioned that “UPM does not provide information about accommodation inside and outside the campus.”

The results of the interview also indicate that the students have easy access to transportation inside and outside the campus. However, some students have complained that the buses do not run on time. Most of them stated that UPM does not provide information about bus schedule. Also some international student’s whose are staying outside campus said that there is a lack of transportation outside university. This study has also revealed that all the students had a problem with campus restaurants. In fact they had no idea of where to find suitable food. According to this study these international students were not satisfied with sanitation quality of campus restaurants. They believed that there are not enough restaurants and presently the available restaurants are not clean as well.

Social and communication differences

The second category of barriers faced by the international post-graduate students was about the difference in social communication which translates into cultural difficulties, especially difficulties in communicating in English. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that international students face more difficulties adapting to the new situation. They face various challenges in terms of culture and communication, loss of social support, language difficulties (Lin & Yi, 1997; Yeh & Inose, 2002; Hus, 2003; Andrade, 2006; Kelly, 2008; Lui, 2009; Sovic, 2009; Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Sherry, 2010; Yusoff & Chelliah, 2010; Mustapha, 2010; Alavi & Shafeg, 2011). According to Yusoff & Chelliah (2010), adjustments by students fall into two categories: socio-cultural adjustments are related to behavioural ability to fit in and could be considered from a social learning perspective predicted by variables related to the social skills acquisitions and cognitive factors. Others have categorized the challenges facing international students. To include 1), social and curriculum and general living adjustment, 2) socio-cultural adjustment, 3) personal psychological adjustment,  4) academic adjustment and 5) Languages Difficulties (Al-Zubaidi & Richards, 2009; Alavi & Shafeq, 2011).

Education challenges

Lack of academic system, teaching methodology and faculty supervisor was international post graduate-students barriers which were encountered during their studies. This is supported by Al-Zubaidi & Rechards (2009) who stated that academic difficulty categories among international students refer to the academic system, lecturers and methodology of teaching. Furthermore, Harman and Hayden (2010) find that, significant challenges with regards to teaching and learning environment in Vietnam  includes the lack of qualifications, and poor teaching preparation among academic staff. According to the results, the system of education is based more on practical and research issues than theoretical ones. However, this might be problematic for those lacking a research background. Team work which is observed in most of the classes is a positive feature of the Malaysian education system, making education more efficient. The two students highlighted that “Here, less emphasis is laid on theory and it is very important to put whatever you learn in practice. Furthermore, the finding illustrated that, there is no significant problems between the international students and faculty supervisor. According to the students report, the main problem with faculty supervisor related to lack of time, and unclear feedback. Five students mentioned that their supervisor does not have enough time for holding a regular meeting. Moreover; three students reported they did not obtain clear feedback from their supervisor. Chests (1997), Blunt & Li (1998) and Adrian&  Kimberly et al. (2007) point out that, graduate students had a problem with their supervisor in lack of useful feedback, different expectations, lack of time, cultural background and gender-based discrimination. Based on the interview, some of them illustrated that their conflict with their supervisor were not significant and with sufficient discussion the conflict was eliminated. Furthermore, Majority of student indicated that they have problem with their writing skills and they need for assistance in their project writing. Similarly, Sherry et al. (2009) indicated that international student needs writing centre for help student.

Financial problem

Financial matter is one of the problems that some international students face. Some students are not supported by their government and they are selfpaid. Leaving abroad for these students is with stress of not having enough money for paying their fees or their living expenses. Prior research indicated that international students’ challenges may occur in dealing with financial challenges (Hsu, 2003; Yeh & Inose, 2003). Similarity, the study about the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo illustrated that international students experience financial problem during their study (sherry et al. 2009)

International office program

Lack of entertaining activities was the international post graduate-students challenges which were made by international service during their studies. The students are not informed well regarding the events and facilities. Homesickness is a problem that a large number of international students experience while staying away from family and hometown and the interviewees of this research highlighted that lack of entertaining activities was a tangible problem. However, no events are organized to help them overcome the above mentioned problem. This results is in line with Lui (2009) findings who reported that lack of entertaining activities is then an important issue that international students face. Similarly some interviewees mentioned that “activity programs for international student are very weak. The indicated that, there is no outside camp activities and trips for international students. According to Wang (2007), Lin & Yi (1997) and Lu (2009), the international student services offices are needed much more especially to help students navigate the new rules and regulations relating to immigration, visas, etc.

 

Sumber : e-journal

Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology 2015, Vol. 4, No. 1, ISSN: 2088-3129  Baharak Talebloo, Ramli bin Basri

Abstract

Current researches on internationalization claim “studying overseas” as a set of potential that assist the augmentation of “globalization”. This article presents the Multicultural Benefits and challenges for International Students during Period of their Study in university Putra Malaysia. Qualitative method and convenience sampling was applied. Semi-structured interview and in depth interviews were conducted on 20 postgraduate students from various fields of study. The result of study showed that the benefits and challenges faced by the international postgraduate students can classify into distinct categories. Studying overseas offers benefits and plus points in terms of Career perspective, cultural familiarity, self-development. The challenges included problems related to facilities, social environment, education system, financial problem and international office programs. The comments made by the students could be considered by the university authorities for improvement in quality of education for international students during their studies.

Keywords: International post-graduate students, challenges and benefits, qualitative method.

 

Introduction

As the world is becoming immensely internationalized, it is fundamental that the college and university students be provided with the fully global academic opportunities. Increasing number of universities accepting higher number of international students each year in Malaysian universities shows the importance of the internationalization education in Malaysia. According to the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia is currently ranked 11th in the world by UNESCO in terms of the number of international students studying in the country (Benjamin, 2010). Malaysia is not only accepting international students in undergraduate level, but also a large number of international students are being accepted

in post graduate level. A research university and a well reputed one in Malaysia, recorded an increase in international graduate student recruitment with a total of 432 students in the second half of 2011/2012.Accordingly,it is considered as one of the  main choice for international students to pursue their studies in this country.

International students in this research are defined as individuals who temporarily reside in a country other than their country of citizenship in order to participate in international educational exchange as students (Paige, 1990). International students come from different countries with different backgrounds and experience. Undoubtedly “study abroad program” offers the greatest potential for pragmatic international education, which is pertinent to the student’s academic, cultural, personal, and career goals (Brux & Fry, 2010). Lots of plus points can be enumerated for “study abroad” as: student will be capable of acquiring the wider viewpoint regarding to the human circumstances in the world and students exhibit an expanded vision of the world and become more tolerant in their approach to issues (Carlson & Burn, 1989; Brux & Fry, 2010). Study abroad program helps facilitate academic programs, volunteer positions, conducting research, internships and exchange programs around the world (Chang, 2011). Moreover, researchers indicated that international awareness, language skills and intercultural competency should be improved by study abroad (Duhon, 2006; Lewin, 2009; Magnan & Back, 2007; Savicki, 2008; Williams, 2009).

According to Chang (2011) international Students believed that gaining international educational experiences was the opportunity to familiar with various cultures, obtain life experience and enrich their academic and research experience. Moreover, the results of  studies illustrated that, the challenges faced by international students have been categorized by following five categories: (1) general living adjustment, such as adjusting to food, finding affordable and adequate housing and transportation, dealing with financial constraints; (2) academic difficulties, such as lack of Method of Teaching Problems; (3) English-language proficiency; (4) socio-cultural difficulties, for example, experiencing culture shock, Recreational Problems (5); personal psychological adjustment, such as homesickness and depression experiences (Lin & Yi, 1997; Ying & Liese, 1994; Tseng and Newton, 2002; Norhasni Zainal, 2007; Al-Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Mustapha, 2010; Marginson et al. 2010 ;Alavi & Shafeq, 2011; Chang, 2011).

This literature review revealed that postgraduate international students face different problems and experiences. Thus, to attract international students, universities need to understand the benefits and difficulties and to provide the right kind of support. In an attempt to fill this research gap, the main objective of this study is to identify benefits and difficulties faced by the international post-graduate

students during their studies in University of Putra Malaysia. Although several researchers have studied to identify international post-graduate students benefits and challenges from the descriptive (mainly quantitatively), yet research needs to address these devices qualitatively. In contrast to previous studies, international postgraduate student’s challenges during the first year of study have not been researched qualitatively so far. The present study seeks to fill the research gap on to identify Multicultural benefits and challenges for international students during period of their Study in University of Putra Malaysia through addressing the following questions:

  1. What are the benefits of “study in multicultural university “for the postgraduate students during the period of study?
  2. What are the Challenges of “study in multicultural university “for the postgraduate students during the period of study?

 

Research methodology

The study was conducted at University Putra Malaysia (UPM). The participants were twenty international post -graduate students, who are doing their MS/PhD studies in biotechnology, TESL, educational administration, management, engineering, economic, food science and computer sciences and came from Iran, Yemen, Iraq, Nigeria and Sudan. Convenience sampling was applied to select the samples because the researcher had an easy access to them. Patton (2002) states that qualitative inquiry typically focuses on relatively small samples selected purposefully to permit inquiry into and understanding of a phenomenon in depth. The interviewees were contacted by email. Out of 25 students who were sent an email, twenty accepted to participate in the interview. Each interview took maximum thirty minutes. Having the participants’ permission, the interviews were digitally recorded. However one participant did not allow the researcher to record the interview. The main purpose of this study was to provide an indepth description and understanding of the human life experience (Lichtman, 2006). It was meant to collect direct speech of the people about their experience, opinions, feelings and knowledge (Maykut & Morehouse, 1994; Patton, 1991). Through the process a special kind of information stored is ‘in and on someone else’s mind’ could be collected. Therefore, the semi-structured, face-toface interview was applied to collect specific data (Merriam, 1998). Based on a review of the literature, a set of questions was developed in advance. Before the interviews were conducted, the interview questions were examined by two experts in the field of education and their comments on the each question were taken into account. Then, objective of the study were clarified to the informants and later transcription of the interviews sent to the informants. They confirmed what was transcribed as comments of their own to the interview questions. The reliability of the findings was also strengthened to the scope of study by similarity of responses to the pertinent literature.

The interviews were transcribed and analysed in relation to the purpose of the study. Dates were coded into categories. The process was carried out inductively that involves examining many small pieces of information and building connection between them. There were then developed based on the code categories.

 

Table1.  Challenges categories common code from international students

THEMES                                                                                                                   CATEGORIES

Accommodation, transportation, food                                                           Facilities

Cultural, communication and English difficulties                             Social and communication differences.

Academic system, lecturers and methodology, faculty

supervisor                                                                                                    Education challenges.

Lack of entertaining activities                                                             International office program.

Costs of living and study                                                                                 Financial problems.

 

Table 2.  Benefits categories common code from international students

THEMES                                                                                                                               CATEGORIES

International work culture                                                                                            Career perspective

Intercultural exchange, effective communication and

new friendship, and global perceptions                                                                  Cultural familiarity

Autonomy and independence, selfawareness, academic skill,

financial management.                                                                                                  Self-development

Findings and discussion

Findings of this research are divided into three parts based on the two research questions. The first part deals with the benefits and the second belong to barriers.

The plus points of study abroad

The participants’ perceptions about the benefits of their study abroad are categorized into three main benefits.

Cultural familiarity

Based on the results obtained in this research, one of the benefits of being an international student was about cultural familiarities which were classified into three categories: intercultural exchange, effective communication and new friendship, and global perceptions. Stephanie McLeod & Wainwright (2009) indicated that hostess country have the ability to boost intercultural competence goals by developing intercultural. Moreover, Zhai and Scheer (2004) indicated that cultural diversity leads to higher global perceptions and have positive attitudes toward diversity of culture. International students’ have ability to communicate with other culture and understand the feelings of people who belong to another culture (Hammer, 1987; Hammer, Gudykunst, & Wiseman, 1978).Thus, UPM as an international university does provide international situation for cultural exchange. The interviewees’ comments are mentioned as follows:

One student stated that “as international student, we have an opportunity to learn to be more respectful of other cultures and political.”  Likewise, some students believed that students are likely to have increased respect for other cultures and appreciate the differences between cultures, and this is the best way to makes them better team worker and problem-solvers. One student believed that, the experience which we can obtain from studying abroad can be much more than the experience gained in our home country. The result is supported by the literature, in which cultural difference between host and home country can lead to significant intercultural experience in studying abroad (Paige et al. 2006; Hofstede et al. 2010). Also, majority of them stated that, during study abroad programs, students transform their experience into learning and share their knowledge without any prejudice. It is the best opportunity for interaction with different people and culture and sharing of their knowledge.

Regarding cultural familiarity, some students believed that they are not only learning about other cultures and find new friends with different culture, but the experience is also very rewarding. Also, one of them said that “after finish our study, we make contact with our international friends and this interaction could be rewarding”. The results of the interview also indicate that all of the students believed that study abroad give them an opportunity to know a great group of friends with different culture.

 

Self-development 

According to the results of the study conducted, another benefit of study abroad is self-development which is categorized into four dimensions: autonomy and independence, self-awareness, gain academic skill, financial managing. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that categories of benefits to international students are open perspectives and independence (Al-Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Lin & Yi, 1997; Yusoff & Chelliah, 2010; Mustapha, 2010; Alavi & Shafeq, 2011).

Among the benefits that all of the students in this study mentioned, opportunity to discover their ability and understanding their interest and habits was obvious. One participant believed that, “study on another country give me an opportunity to understand my adaptation ability to different situations”. Also, all students remarked that “independent nature is bringing out by being in overseas country”. Furthermore, all of participants stated that, “our confidence and independence was improved by studying and living in another country”. In this research international students believed that studying abroad leads those to new situations the whole time. They believed that, when we try to convey our needs and thoughts by new language and intercultural skills, it helps us to be more independent and gives us confidence during our study. Also, some participants believed that as result of being independents in our life, our decision-making and problem-solving skills are improved. The result is supported by the literature where, international experiences had an impact on student’s personal development and confidence growth. Therefore, international experiences are opportunity to explore best ways of for solving that challenges (Lee, 2004).

Career perspective

Career perspective was another benefit of studying overseas. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that, undertaking a course in overseas for professional advancement prepares students for work as academics in their own country (Margaret et al. 2006) and influences their career development (Norris & Gillespie, 2009).

The majority of the students in this study stated that studying abroad will improve their career prospects and attractiveness to future employers. Likewise, one study indicates that of all respondents have engaged in international work or volunteerism since studying abroad.

In this research it has also been found that the international students believed that studying abroad helps gain professional benefits and competitive edge in their career. Moreover, some students assert that, “get a job overseas and work for a multinational country was the benefits of study foreign country”. One participant believed that “Employers often seek employees with the ability to speak other languages or understand other cultures. Studying abroad is imperative for students who wish to enter international business, and employers look for the skills study abroad students have, such as communication, analytical abilities, teamwork and flexibility”. This was mentioned in the literature, Evans and Stevenson (2010) who said that according to international Australian PhD students the PhD degree will enhance their career prospects.

 

The Challenges of study abroad

The second research question focused on the challenges encountered by international postgraduate students which can be categorised into four.

Facilities

According to the results of the study conducted, the students have also faced facilities barriers which in turn are categorized into three main groups: habitation, transportation, campus restaurants. Lu (2001) stated that housing and food was the two problematic areas for international students when they arrive in the US. Regarding Accommodation facilities, some students believed that they are not only inappropriate, unsafe, poor, and inconvenient, but also very expensive. Also, UPM does not provide information about accommodation. The interviewees’ comments are mentioned as follows:

Some student stated that “UPM’s International Housing Complex not only the rent was very high, but also the facilities were so poor and there was not conveniently situated. Being located at the end of the academic area, it was very isolated and I did not feel really secure at night.” According to the results of the study, not enough information is given on accommodation. The majority of students mentioned that “UPM does not provide information about accommodation inside and outside the campus.”

The results of the interview also indicate that the students have easy access to transportation inside and outside the campus. However, some students have complained that the buses do not run on time. Most of them stated that UPM does not provide information about bus schedule. Also some international student’s whose are staying outside campus said that there is a lack of transportation outside university. This study has also revealed that all the students had a problem with campus restaurants. In fact they had no idea of where to find suitable food. According to this study these international students were not satisfied with sanitation quality of campus restaurants. They believed that there are not enough restaurants and presently the available restaurants are not clean as well.

 

Social and communication differences

The second category of barriers faced by the international post-graduate students was about the difference in social communication which translates into cultural difficulties, especially difficulties in communicating in English. These results match the literature, in which many authors had highlighted the fact that international students face more difficulties adapting to the new situation. They face various challenges in terms of culture and communication, loss of social support, language difficulties (Lin & Yi, 1997; Yeh & Inose, 2002; Hus, 2003; Andrade, 2006; Kelly, 2008; Lui, 2009; Sovic, 2009; Zubaidi & Rechards, 2009; Sherry, 2010; Yusoff & Chelliah, 2010; Mustapha, 2010; Alavi & Shafeg, 2011). According to Yusoff & Chelliah (2010), adjustments by students fall into two categories: socio-cultural adjustments are related to behavioural ability to fit in and could be considered from a social learning perspective predicted by variables related to the social skills acquisitions and cognitive factors. Others have categorized the challenges facing international students. To include 1), social and curriculum and general living adjustment, 2) socio-cultural adjustment, 3) personal psychological adjustment,  4) academic adjustment and 5) Languages Difficulties (Al-Zubaidi & Richards, 2009; Alavi & Shafeq, 2011).

Education challenges

Lack of academic system, teaching methodology and faculty supervisor was international post graduate-students barriers which were encountered during their studies. This is supported by Al-Zubaidi & Rechards (2009) who stated that academic difficulty categories among international students refer to the academic system, lecturers and methodology of teaching. Furthermore, Harman and Hayden (2010) find that, significant challenges with regards to teaching and learning environment in Vietnam  includes the lack of qualifications, and poor teaching preparation among academic staff. According to the results, the system of education is based more on practical and research issues than theoretical ones. However, this might be problematic for those lacking a research background. Team work which is observed in most of the classes is a positive feature of the Malaysian education system, making education more efficient. The two students highlighted that “Here, less emphasis is laid on theory and it is very important to put whatever you learn in practice. Furthermore, the finding illustrated that, there is no significant problems between the international students and faculty supervisor. According to the students report, the main problem with faculty supervisor related to lack of time, and unclear feedback. Five students mentioned that their supervisor does not have enough time for holding a regular meeting. Moreover; three students reported they did not obtain clear feedback from their supervisor. Chests (1997), Blunt & Li (1998) and Adrian&  Kimberly et al. (2007) point out that, graduate students had a problem with their supervisor in lack of useful feedback, different expectations, lack of time, cultural background and gender-based discrimination. Based on the interview, some of them illustrated that their conflict with their supervisor were not significant and with sufficient discussion the conflict was eliminated. Furthermore, Majority of student indicated that they have problem with their writing skills and they need for assistance in their project writing. Similarly, Sherry et al. (2009) indicated that international student needs writing centre for help student.

 

Financial problem

 

Financial matter is one of the problems that some international students face. Some students are not supported by their government and they are selfpaid. Leaving abroad for these students is with stress of not having enough money for paying their fees or their living expenses. Prior research indicated that international students’ challenges may occur in dealing with financial challenges (Hsu, 2003; Yeh & Inose, 2003). Similarity, the study about the experiences of international students at The University of Toledo illustrated that international students experience financial problem during their study (sherry et al. 2009).

 

International office program

Lack of entertaining activities was the international post graduate-students challenges which were made by international service during their studies. The students are not informed well regarding the events and facilities. Homesickness is a problem that a large number of international students experience while staying away from family and hometown and the interviewees of this research highlighted that lack of entertaining activities was a tangible problem. However, no events are organized to help them overcome the above mentioned problem. This results is in line with Lui (2009) findings who reported that lack of entertaining activities is then an important issue that international students face. Similarly some interviewees mentioned that “activity programs for international student are very weak. The indicated that, there is no outside camp activities and trips for international students. According to Wang (2007), Lin & Yi (1997) and Lu (2009), the international student services offices are needed much more especially to help students navigate the new rules and regulations relating to immigration, visas, etc.

 

Sumber : e-journal

Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology 2015, Vol. 4, No. 1, ISSN: 2088-3129                                                               Baharak Talebloo, Ramli bin Basri

 
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Ditulis oleh pada Juli 12, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

EXERCISE ABOUT COORDINATE CONNECTORS

BERIKUT ADALAH CONTOH SOAL-SOAL EXERCISE ABOUT COORDINATE CONNECTORS
1. A spacecraft is freed from fiction ___ launched into space.
A. It
B. It is
C. After is
D. After it is – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
2. ___ with their surroundings, or they hide in crevices for protection.
A. Lobsters
B. Lobsters blend – The sentence needs subject and Verb 1, matching it to the Verb after comma (hide)
C. Lobsters blending
D. Because lobsters blend
3. _____ a ball-and-socket joint, the elbow is a simple hinge joint.
A. While the shoulder
B. While the shoulder is – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
C. The shoulder is
D. The shoulder
4. A car has several sections with moving parts, ___ of those parts is essential.
A. Good lubrication
B. Well lubricated
C. And good lubrication – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
D. And well lubricated
5. Bears cannot see well ___ small eyes.
A. Bears have
B. Because having
C. Because they have – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
D. Because of bears
6. ____ at the isthmus of Panama, so animals were able to migrate between North and South America.
A. A land bridge existed
B. When a land bridge existed – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
C. A land bridge
D. With a land bridge
7. ____ mostly made of granite, it also contains some human-made materials.
A. The Empire State Building
B. The Empire State Building is
C. Although the Empire State Building is – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
D. Although the Empire State Building is built
8. Pressure differences make the eardrum vibrate ____ the ear.
A. Enters the sound wave
B. As sound wave
C. Sound waves enter
D. As sound waves enter – need a conjunction to combine the two clause
9. An optical microscope magnifies as much as 2, 000 times, but an electron microscope ___ as much as a million times.
A. Magnifying
B. It magnifies
C. Can magnify – the first clause use simple present, so the second clause have to use the same tense
D. Magnify it
10. If scientific estimates are accurate, ____ with the Earth about 20, 000 years ago.
A. The Canon Diablo meteorite collided need a subject and verb to make a dependent clause
B. The collision of the Canon Diablo meteorite
C. The Canon Diablo meteorite colliding
D. Colliding the Canon Diablo meteorite
11. Nuclear power can be produced by fusion, ____ produced by fission.
A. It can also be
B. It can also
C. And it can also be – the clause need a conjunction, subject and verb
D. And it can also
12. ____ igneous rocks may be changed into gneisses,
A. The temperature is high
B. If the temperature is high – conditional sentence type 1
C. High temperatures
D. If high temperature
13. Because a family of birds set up housekeeping in Joel Chandler Harris’s mailbox when the birds were on need of a place to stay, ___ the Wren’s Nest.
A. The home is named – need a subject after dependent clause
B. So the home is named
C. Naming the home
D. The home’s name
14. Today the true story of ___ at Little Bighorn remains a mystery.
A. Happened
B. It happened
C. What happened – need a subject after “of”
D. What happening
15. For more than a decade, ___ that certain species are becoming scarce.
A. The warning or bird-watchers
B. Warn the bird-watchers
C. Bird-watchers have warned – need a subject and verb to make a dependent clause before conjunction
D. A warning for bird-watchers
16. Early in the eighteen century, Halley accurately predicted when ___ of the 1682 would return.
A. The comet – need a subject
B. Was the comet
C. The comet was
D. Had the comet
17. No single factor explains why ___ vary so greatly among individuals.
A. Aging affects
B. The effects of aging – need a subject
C. Aging has an effect
D. The aging effect
18. Lack of clarity about ___ the party in the coming year will be removed at the party’s convention.
A. Will lead
B. Lead
C. They will lead
D. Who will lead – need relative pronoun and verb
19. We do not ___ the bow drill was first developed for woodworking or fire making.
A. Whether it
B. Know whether it
C. Know whether – “do not” should be followed by Verb infinitive and a conjunction for the independent clause
D. Sure whether
20. Minute Man National Historical Park is a monument to where ____.
A. The beginning of the Revolutionary War
B. In the beginning of the Revolutionary War
C. The Revolutionary War begin – “where” followed by object and we use begin because we need Verb infinitive
D. The Revolutionary War to begin
21. Test on the colors of cars were conducted at the University of California to determine ___ the safest colors for cars.
A. Which
B. Which were – need relative pronoun and verb
C. If
D. How were
22. The National Institute of Dental Research estimates ___ in fluoridated areas have about 25 percent less tooth decay when children elsewhere.
A. For school children
B. School children’s
C. That school children – need a subordinating conjunction for the clauses
D. That for school children
23. The process of photosynthesis explains how ___ able to use the energy in sunlight to manufacture foods from the simple chemicals in air and water.
A. Green plants
B. Green plants are – green plants is the subject while are is a part of the verb
C. Planting greens
D. With green plants are
24. The Moon’s gravity pulls water on the near side of the Earth toward the Moon, and this is what ____ tides to occur.
A. The cause
B. Causes
C. Causing
D. The cause of
25. It is not clear whether the subdivisions of the neocortex ___ units.
A. Individual
B. Are individual – simple present
C. They are individual
D. Individually
26. Modern humans, who first appeared about 600, 000 years ago, ____ Homo sapiens.
A. calling
B. were called – a passive voice in simple
past tense
C. they called
D. they were called
27. The first writing ___ evidence of is on Mesopotamian clay tablets.
A. We
B. That we
C. Has
D. That we have – noun clause to explain the object
28. ___ drought-resistant plants which store water in fleshy tissue.
A. Succulents are – need a subject and verb
B. Succulents
C. They are succulents
D. Succulents which are
29. Benjamin Kablesky, whom ___ as Jack Benny, was a famous comedian in vaudeville and on radio and television.
A. Most people’s knowledge
B. Most people know – need a subject and verb
C. Knowing most people
D. The knowledge of most people
30. ___ the hunted other animals tended to have very narrow, sharp, curved claws.
A. For dinosaurs
B. Dinosaurs are known
C. Dinosaurs – only need a subject
D. Like dinosaurs
31. The first eyeglasses had convex lenses for the aged who ___ farsighted.
A. Had become – past perfect
B. They had become
C. Becoming
D. It became
32. Chimney Rock, ___ 500 feet above the North Platte River, has eroded considerably in the last two centuries.
A. Stands
B. Is standing
C. It stands
D. Which stands – need relative pronoun and verb
33. ____ that accompany recurring bouts of severe depression reduce bone density.
A. It changes hormones
B. Hormonal changes
C. The hormones change
D. The changes in hormones is
34. Willa Cather is an author ___ for her evocative and memorable vision of frontier prairie life.
A. Whom readers
B. The praise of readers
C. Whom praising
D. Whom readers praise – need a relative pronouns, subject and verb
35. Mars’s tiny moon Phobos is a small mountain of rock that ___ from the asteroid belt by Mars’s gravitational pull.
A. Was probably captured – needs past tense verb
B. It probably
C. The probable capture
D. Probably the capture
36. Some scientists think ___ be a planet but a moon of Neptune.
A. That Pluto does not seem
B. Not Pluto
C. Pluto that might not
D. That Pluto might not – needs conjunctions, subject and verb
37. Fort Union was the site of what ___ principal fur-trading post on the upper Missouri River.
A. The
B. Being the
C. Was the
D. It was the
38. Since ___ commercial risk, it has to appeal to a large audience to justify its cost.
A. The face of the movie
B. Moving faces
C. A movie faces – needs subject and verb after conjunction
D. To face a movie

 
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Ditulis oleh pada Juli 4, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

AGREEMENT AFTER CERTAIN WORDS AND PAST PARTICIPLE AFTER HAVE

1. Everyone has already took a baby step to build their business
2. Everything in that bowl has already been eaten by my little brother
3. Someone had moved to the house across ours
4. No one has become angry looking at his attitude.
5. Someone must have watched “pengabdi setan” two times
6. Someone has robbed my wallet
7. Nothing has changed my mind
8. Has anyone ever seen my keys
9. Someone must have helped that old lady, right?
10. Something must have eaten the raw fish that I put here earlier
11. Each of the president’s wives in our country has already planted their favorite flowers in this park
12. Every child in my neighbourhood had already been invited to my son’s birthday party
13. The movie is the worst. Has everyone ever played in any movies before?
14. Everything has happened several times already
15. No one have heard any weird sound before

Catatan : kata bergaris bawah adalah subject, dan kata berwarna hijau adalah verb

 
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Ditulis oleh pada April 22, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

AGREEMENT AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY

 

1. All gamers on the winning team are working hard at upgrading their level.
2. All snacks in front of the television are not mine
3. Plenty of the fashion magazines beneath the table were torn apart
4. There is no examples from the teacher given in the class
5. How many cows on the farm do you have?
6. Some cakes on my birthday party were made by my mom
7. Some books on the left shelves are his
8. A lot of boys in my class are self-centered
9. All progress on making this project should have been saved
10. A couple of ideas for this research are very brilliant
11. Most of my hairclips are kept in the bottom drawer
12. All workers on the site seem so tired
13. A brown dog across the street are looking at me
14. The cost of all gowns in this department store was higher than I expected
15. Some soft drinks on the refrigerator have already expired

Catatan : kata berwarna hijau adalah verbs, dan kata bergaris bawah adalah subject

 

 
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Ditulis oleh pada April 22, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

AGREEMENT AFTER PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES AND EXPRESSIONS OF QUANTITY

1. All gamers on the winning team are working hard at upgrading their level.
2. All snacks in front of the television are not mine
3. Plenty of the fashion magazines beneath the table were torn apart
4. There is no examples from the teacher given in the class
5. How many cows on the farm do you have?
6. Some cakes on my birthday party were made by my mom
7. Some books on the left shelves are his
8. A lot of boys in my class are self-centered
9. All progress on making this project should have been saved
10. A couple of ideas for this research are very brilliant
11. Most of my hairclips are kept in the bottom drawer
12. All workers on the site seem so tired
13. A brown dog across the street are looking at me
14. The cost of all gowns in this department store was higher than I expected
15. Some soft drinks on the refrigerator have already expired

info : subject yang bergaris bawah, verbs yang berwarna

 

 
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Ditulis oleh pada April 20, 2018 in Uncategorized

 

Contoh Soal TOEFL

STRUCTURE

  1. _____ the demands of aerospace, medicine, and agriculture, aengineers, are creating exotic new metallic substances. Jawaban C
    (A) Meet
    (B) Being met are
    (C) To meet
    (D) They are meeting
  2. _______ James A. Bland, “Carry Me Back to Old Virginny” was adopted is the state song of Virginia in 1940. Jawaban D
    (A) Was written b
    (B) His writing was
    (C) He wrote the
    (D) Written by
  3. Mary Garden, ______ the early 1900’s was considered one of the best singing actresses of her time. Jawaban D
    (A) a soprano was popular
    (B) in a popular soprano
    (C) was a popular soprano
    (D) a popular soprano in
  4. In the realm of psychological theory Margaret F. Washburn was a dualist _____ that motor phenomena have an essential role in psychology. Jawaban B
    (A) who she believed
    (B) who believed
    (C) believed
    (D) who did she believe
  5. The committee has met twice and …. Jawaban D
  6. they reached a final decision
  7. a final decision was reached
  8. its decision was reached
  9. it has reached a final decision

 

  1. The manager won’t be able to attend the shareholders’ meeting tomorrow because…. Jawaban B
  2. he must to give a lecture
  3. he will be giving a lecture
  4. of he will give lecture
  5. he will have giving a lecture

 

  1. Brenda’s score on the test is the highest in class. Jawaban C
  2. She should study hard last night.
  3. She should have studied hard last night.
  4. She must have studied hard last night.
  5. She had to study hard last night

 

  1. To answer accurately is more important than… Jawaban A
  2. to finish quickly
  3. a quick finish
  4. you finish it quickly
  5. quick finish

 

  1. Having been served lunch,…. Jawaban B
  2. the problems were discussed by the participants.
  3. the participants discuss the problems.
  4. it was discussed by the participants.
  5. A discussion of the problems were made by the participants.

 

  1. East Kalimantan relies heavily on income from oil and natural gas, and…. Jawaban D
  2. Aceh province also.
  3. Aceh province too.
  4. Aceh province is as well.
  5. so does Aceh province.

 

  1. The participants have had some problems deciding…. Jawaban C
  2. when they should announce the result of the meeting.
  3. when are they sgoing to announce the result of the meeting.
  4. when should they announce the result of the meeting.
  5. the time when the result of the meeting to announce.

 

  1. This year will be more difficult for our organization because…. Jawaban C
  2. we have less money and volunteers than last year.
  3. there is a little money and volunteers than last year.
  4. it has less money and fewer volunteers than it had last year.
  5. it has fewer money and less volunteers than it had last year.

 

  1. Professor Baker told his students that… Jawaban C
  2. they can turn over their reports on Mondays.
  3. the reports can turn over on Monday.
  4. they could hand in their reports on Monday.
  5. the reports they can hand in on Monday.

 

  1. The adder is a venomous snake … bite may prove fatal to humans. Jawaban D
  2. its
  3. whom its
  4. that
  5. whose

 

  1. …. a bee colony gets, the more the queen’s egglaying capability diminishers. Jawaban B
  2. It is more overcrowded.
  3. The more overcrowded.
  4. More overcrowded than.
  5. More than overcrowded.

 

  1. The chairwoman requested that …. Jawaban B
  2. the participants studied more careful the problem.
  3. the participants study the problem more carefully.
  4. the participants studied  the problem with more careful.
  5. the problem be studied more carefully.

 

  1. Unlike the earth, which rotates once every twenty-four hours … once every ten hours. Jawaban B
  2. the rotation of Jupiter
  3. Jupiter rotates
  4. Jupiter rotation
  5. Jupiter rotate

 

  1. Jackson,… capital of Mississippi, is the largest city in the state. Jawaban A
  2. the
  3. it is the
  4. is the
  5. where the

 

  1. The various types of bacteria are classified according to…shapes. Jawaban D
  2. whose
  3. how they are
  4. have
  5. their

 

WRITTEN EXPRESSION

  1. On Ellesmere Island in the Arctic one fossil forest consistof a nearlyhundred
    A                 B
    large stumps scattered on an exposed coal bed. Jawaban B
    C                       D
  2. The surface conditionson the planet Mars are the morelike the Earth’s than are
    A                                                    B                                C
    those of any other planet in the solar system. Jawaban B
    D
  3. The midnight sun isa phenomenon in which the Sun visible remainsin the sky
    A                                                              B                   C
    for twenty-four hours or longer. Jawaban B
    D
  4. The Humber River and itsvalley formmajor salmon-fishing, lumbering, hunting,
    A              B         C
    and farmer region in western Newfoundland, Canada. Jawaban D
    D
  5. Government money appropriated for art in the 1930’s made possible hundreds of

murals and statues still admiration in small towns all over the United States. Jawaban C

  1. Rice, which it still forms the staple diet of much of the world’s population, grows            best in hot, wet lands. Jawaban A

sumber:

http://www.kursusmudahbahasainggris.com

http://www.geniustoefl.com

http://www.anaogi.com

 
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Ditulis oleh pada Maret 13, 2018 in Uncategorized